On the onset of signing peace agreement in Addis Ababa and Juba, Government of South Sudan in the person of President Salva Kiir put forth many reservations on the agreement, among the reservations were the issues of “final decision making” mechanisms and the issue of the two armies in the capital Juba and other major towns. The peace makers of he CPA2 said it is a compromise peace agreement, maybe the word compromise have a good meaning in English but in the simple Arabic it is not a serious word that a peace agreement can be termed “compromise” peace, it mean joking. The designers would say saving lives of the people is better than bad peace, well, bad peace bring back death of the same people spared. Therefore, people who don’t like jokes in both camps of the President and of to be First Vice President knew they were been lock horned again in the CPA2 and that once the forces meet in Juba the smarter one will take down the dull one down.
15 December 2013 will be remembered in the history of South Sudan as a very bad day “black day”, a day in which South Sudan went a blaze again when the Dinka and the Nuer in the Presidential Guards unit open fire against each other on “suspicion” or “intended” of staging a coup d’état against the President Salva Kiir Mayardit by his former Vice President and his immediate political rival Dr Riek Machar.
Prior to that day (15 December 2013), South Sudan was relatively a stable country, South Sudan used to be rank behind Sudan and Somalia in the index of failed states. Prior to that day South Sudan was not in the danger zone of famine and starvation, there was return to Kakuma refugees camp in Kenya but there was not huge influx or massive exodus as after the 15 December, there were no IDPs in the UNMISS camps but the camps were constructed already by UNMISS waiting for the arrival of the IDPs when comes the day.
But was South Sudan stable prior to that day 15 December 2013? No, there were fighting everywhere in greater Upper Nile, there was SSLM/A movement of General Bapiny Monytuil and General Matthew PulJang killing and maiming civilians in Unity state specially Mayom county. They were fighting the government in Juba on claims that the government was corrupted and that Bul Nuer were marginalized in the state government. It was Mayom revolution that ends with all the top generals of the SSLM/A being absorbed into SPLA and others were awarded some advisory positions in the Presidency in 2014. There was Cobra faction of David Yau-Yau in Greater Pibor who were engaged in abducting Dinka and Nuer children and cattle, and his tribe Murle was subjected to repeated massacres through the hands of the infamous “White Army” of Nuer Lou. General Peter Gadet was assigned to head SPLA division 8 which was fighting David Yau-Yau insurgencies in Jongeli, he ends up being accused by human rights groups of committing crimes against humanity, there were left-over grievance of George Athor SSDM/A in Pigi County, there was the insurgencies of Gordon Kong’s South Sudan Defense Force and Johnson Olony Agwlek in Upper Nile state. Greater Upper Nile was not at peace before 15 December 2013!
Quest for Peace:
IGAD peace led processes was stuck in how to reshape the old CPA of John Garang and Ali Taha into Salva Kiir and Riek Machar new CPA therefore; many other initiatives were parallel initiated in the region to try bringing peace to South Sudan. South Africa and Tanzania coordinated SPLM factions’ reunification was a good one, another one was President of Kenya Uhru Kenyata initiative and lastly, Sudan President was tipped to be the right persons to bring peace to his old foes just before his famous escape arrest in South Africa. Anything to do with “south” now is not sweet to his hears.
The hunt for peace continue, but with new proposals reaching to negotiation table everyday from the mediators, the two warring groups just want to get “get it all”. During the SouthSudanAt4 celebrations in Juba, President Kiir reaffirmed his commitment to bring peace in the country before the end of his new Parliament given term. The President and his government are going to bring peace in the country, but how to do bring peace is not explain to the audience, it is more Addis Ababa, Tanzania and Kenya hotels. Sit and relax, wait and peace will come from the government because they know what they are doing!
In his recent interview with reporters from Nairobi, Dr Riek called upon President Kiir to resign with his entire government on the basis that “Kiir government term is going to expire on the night of July 8th 2015” he called upon South Sudanese to UP-RISE against Kiir. In another interview with Aljzeera, Dr. Riek said he wants a Power-sharing deal with President Salva Kiir but when his conditions are met like compensation of loses inflicted in greater Upper Nile and of course on the Nuer tribe. Not agreed to “Arusha Agreement” on reunification of the SPLM factions.
In the rebels’ camp, there are few common things recited by all zeal supporters of the FREEDOM Fighters:
- Nuer ethnics were killed in thousands in Juba: Kiir Dinka government has killed the Nuer and Kiir and his Dinka government must GO. The “RED CARD” campaign on the social media. Yes Nuers were killed in December 2013 but is the government in Juba a Dinka government? What about those national ministers who hail from Nuer like Benjamin Marial, Riek Gai, etcetera? ICC should start investigating crimes against humanity in South Sudan and Kiir must be ousted because of his crimes.
- Dr. Riek Machar is the Savor of South Sudan: Riek must lead the country now and not later for South Sudanese to be free. No freedom as long as the Dinka is the leader of this country! No room for dictator.
- Uganda army must leave South Sudan: those fat guys or Nyamnyam are the ones preventing the mighty White Army to enter Juba at daylight! The coward Dinka cannot stop the bravest tribe Nuer from entering Juba, freed the IDPs masses sheltering in UNMISS camps across the country.
- Federal system of governance must be introduced in South Sudan: Federalism or we keep fighting to the last man blood! More states must created because South Sudan was divided by the British into 22 provinces, we must obey what the masters did long time ago and there must be 22 states in South Sudan for the ten million people. Counties of 3000 population, Payam of one man with his 10 wives.
- Kiir is sick and will die soon, actually he was died in late May and earlier June until he resurrected in South Africa summit. This is counter-propaganda of government’s Dr Riek eyes cancer.
President Kiir stated that he cannot bring peace alone, he need all his comrades to come together to come and raid together again! Pagan has joined the come-raids and the rest of G10 are expected to join in. Riek is not coming because this time he doesn’t want to raid with old comrades, this time he wants to raid alone.
Government camp has these in common:
- Riek Machar rebellion is a tribal movement and must be crash! King Paul is around.
- Riek Machar will not rule this country, he is an evil man who have killed and delayed the independence of South Sudan in 1991 when he split and form his Nasir faction of SPLM/A
- Riek Machar and his white army are welcome back as civilians, not to be reintegrated in the SPLA again.
- Riek Machar is sick with eyes cancer is going to die soon.
While South Sudanese people are waiting for the conflict to end, civilians are attack, rape, abducted, killed, displaced and castrated in the fighting fields. No end in sight for the suffering to stop!
South Sudanese people need peace now, peace which addresses the problem that causes the current conflict and the previous insurgencies. The continuous attempts by IGAD to replicate the CPA are not only a recipe for instability but a direct execution of South Sudan as people and country.
The world through UN and NGOs are calling for sanctions hoping it will stop the war, but they are wrong, sanctions will not stop this Dinka and Nuer war. Charles Obbo could be right “They should be left to fight, kill each, and eventually, when the country has bled to exhaustion and one of them is standing over the corpses of his enemies, they will sober up and stabilise their homeland”. He continue to say that “What makes this complicated is that rebel movements like the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement had members who live in the Diaspora and are successful professionals in London, New York, Kampala, and Nairobi, and too were used to a good life”. The same thing to government supporters who have good life, unfortunately, there is no good life for majority of South Sudanese civilians who lives in the war torn villages.
In the restaurants: When visiting a local restaurant in the heart of Khartoum, the cook and the waiters used bare-naked hands to serve food. Give me more bread please! The waiter will just walk and pick one and clean the flour off with his other bare-naked hand.
In the offices: Only four hours of official work. From 10 AM to 2 PM you can be serve if you are lucky, after that nobody I mean officials in the offices to work on your papers.
Transportation: Transportation was the cheapest; whether you are taking a public buses or renting a taxi. 40 SDN can rent a taxi for a distance of 40-50 KM
In the hotel where I was accommodated, no photos, no any kind of art except that of the Kaba and arrow showing the direction of Mecca for prayer purpose in the room.
Majority of the people, the Sudanese are friendly to South Sudanese, but of course there were some pain and puzzling felt by the Sudanese over the separation of South Sudan. Few young men and young women make jokes like, “what do you want here again, you wanted your country, you have it why are you here again”? I was not sure if they were joking or complaining.
Food: Yes there is quality food everywhere, but for the well-off people, also there is that bad and poor quality food for the poor.
No more dust storms in Khartoum, Alhamdu liLah!
Fight for alcohols continue! Sudanese Gin/Aragi is the most darling and daring
I want to eat Shaeya or Nyama Choma, the owner was stupid. Bare foot, aggressive, Islamic religious symbols everywhere. I asked him “Brother, how long it is going to take me to wait for the Shaeya to be ready”? “Just wait” was the answer. He behaves like the Sudanese bus drivers who never tell the departure and arrival times and to them, time estimation is against the faith. In-shaa-Allah
Mobile phones market is boosted. Samsung phones trade-mark is everywhere in the town. One Samsung phone dealer cheated me; he gave me a fake Samsung and took my best Samsung. Great development!
Off to the Ministry of Education and General Instruction. There were queues in every direction. South Sudanese like other foreigners have one window or the counter to pay fees for issuing their certificates. All foreigners are charged 61 SDN and Sudanese 21 SDN. I thought there were other services for foreigners’ e.g. where to receive the certificate, but all the foreigners with all, all the Sudanese queue for hours and hours to receive the certificate. One out of five South Sudanese gets his/her name correctly spelled in the certificate. My names where spelled wrongly two times.
Big, very big towers or what the Westerns call now days (sky scrapers) springing up here and there, I think that is what they call development. Life has speeded up in Khartoum; you can see how people walk in the market places, no more slow-mode
So many bleached South Sudanese ladies around! And there are so many Nuer and Shilluk natives in Khartoum.
“Ya Zool do you have dollars? Do you want to buy dollars”? Mostly all well dressed-up South Sudanese are asked these questions in Arabi Market. Quest for the lost dollars from South Sudan oil continue.
Old friends who were human rights activists are still strong and keeping doing the same work. It seems that many people are minding their business now because of hardship in economics.
Many thanks to my friends and brothers from Sudan! Mohamed E. invited me for dinner the second day of my arrival. Mohamed A. invited me for dinner with his family the fourth day, my friend Mubark B. invited me for Mr. Gordon Gin. and a nice chicken. Dr. M.A invited me in his house and I had a nice dinner with him and an old friend I forgotten back in 2005 when I met him in Al-Mujlad. Many thanks go to all other friends who offered me training on human rights defenders security and reporting, many thanks.
Briefly, I am narrating what befall my brother Thijin Rambang on the morning of 19 December 2013, Thijin was a Nuer by tribe and was killed by his own tribesmen Nuer for refusing to allow the killing of his Dinka colleagues and friends.
Thijin Rambang Yuol Khan was born in 1975; he hailed from Ulang County, Upper Nile. He worked as Taxation Officer based in Bentiu Unity state, South Sudan. On 19th December 2013 Thijin was traveling from Bentiu to Juba through Tharjath oilfield airstrip when the newly forming rebels in Unity state under the command of James Leah Diew former prisons guards director for Unity State stopped their bus to pick the Dinka travelers out from the bus.
It happened that late Thijin was traveling with his boss who was a Dinka along with other 6 Dinka tribesmen. At Kilo 50 police check point, the local youth and the rebels stopped the KushAir bus carrying passengers to Tharjath oilfield airstrip and the Dinka were asked to leave the bus. Mr. Thijin came out of the bus with his Dinka colleagues whom were separated from others.
There were three Dinka men from Panriang County in Unity state, one man from Rumbek, two from Bor. In total there were six Dinka men who were detained. At this point, Mr. Thijin argued with his tribesmen and pleaded not to kill the Dinka civilians. However, the helpless Dinkas were killed, but! Before they were killed, Thijin Rambang was shot and killed by the rebels after that the six Dinka were killed and only a mother and his one year old daughter were left to return with the rest of the passengers.
And this is what one of his sisters to say:
- You were not betraying your tribe (Nuer) as some would like to view you but you did not falter doing your ideological pledge as citizen that all are South Sudanese and the fight should be left where it supposed to be…
You met your death in the hands of your tribesmen trying to protect your colleagues as workmates and brothers as South Sudanese.
You did not think about your own life of heading toward lifeless.
You did not think about your kids of being fatherless
You did not think about your wife of being husbandless
You did not think of your parents of being sonless
You did not think about losing your workmates because of their tribe, just thought as a work of a lone wolf in Juba, not all tribe he comes from
You knew that you spend your young years fighting to achieve the birth of this country along with your other brothers from all ethnicities
You knew leadership problem was not a tribal problem
My family members and I will always remember you as brother, father, uncle, brother-in-laws, Nuer fellow-man and above all as a good citizen of South Sudan. Lest we forget! RIP!
I believe in this crazy conflict of South Sudan there are many Thijin who have sacrificed their lives to protect vulnerable individuals from different ethnicity. Some of them have managed it while some of them perished all together with the dear ones they have tried to protect. But there will be a day to bring the perpetrators to book for their crazy actions, soonest or later, the killers will wipe our tears in different ways.
When the fighting broke out in Juba on the 15th December 2013, people of Panaruu in Unity state were not aware that this conflict is going to turn into a tribal war between the Dinka and the Nuer tribes. But, very unfortunately on the 18th of December 2013 defected SPLA forces started to shoot their colleagues in Bonki boma in Aliiny payam. The fighting between the SPLA forced escalated to include civilians in the area.
The following gives detailed account about attacks on Panrieng County by Rebels from 18/12 to 31/12/2013
As a result of the attacks, the following facts are recoded:
Killing of civilians: 72 Dinka from Panrieng were killed in different locations
- Burning of houses: in Panyang payam, the rebels have burnt all the villages along Panyang-Jau road and some houses in Panyang town including destroying the only water yard in the town. In addition to Panyang payam, Adumbok village in Alilang payam is also burnt as well as Athoony market in Aliiny payam. In Nyiel payam, Nyiel, Yaar and Nyorial are burnt. In Biu payam, Agarak, Lele, Tur, Akot and Ariewriew are burnt.
- Damage and destruction of public and individuals’ properties: as a result of the fighting in the above mentioned locations, farms were destroyed, goats and cows looted or killed by the attackers from Bentiu and defectors from different brigades within Panrieng county.
- Massive displacement: all Biu payam in southern Panrieng, Nyiel payam, Wiunkur and Aliiny payams are all displaced. Panrieng town is left only for those who have arms and can fight. Most of the population have moved into the bushes to protect themselves from anticipated and continue attacks by the rebels to capture or destroy Panrieng.
- Destruction and damage of Athoony Oil Field Processing Facility.
This is the breakdown of civilians killed and locations they were killed:
– 5 people were killed in Unity Oil Field Processing Facility
– 5 killed and 4 lost in Tharjath Oil Field Processing Facility
– 5 people known to be killed in Bentiu but the exact number is still unknown, and also in Rubkona is unknown.
In Panrieng County, the number of the civilians killed is detailed as following:
The total number of the civilian killed from Panrieng is 72 people including women and children.
The Nuba refugees in Yida and Ajuongthok are living in a dreadful fear of unknown future in South Sudan Unity state.
30/03/2013 12:06:38 م] Jo…: well two things could happen now, before elections (tell me if you also think this): SPLM stays together and Riek and Salva have a working relationship; or Nuer and Shilluk try to overtake Dinka leadership in SPLM and you have a big division and huge fight within SPLM/A
[30/03/2013 12:07:42 م] James Diar: i am very much worried
[30/03/2013 12:07:47 م] James Diar: first:
[30/03/2013 12:07:59 م] James Diar: Riek is determined to stand for elections, he is right
[30/03/2013 12:08:11 م] Jo…: Riek is sure he wants to be president?
[30/03/2013 12:08:23 م] James Diar: yes he want
[30/03/2013 12:08:42 م] James Diar: there is no SPLM, there are Dinka and Nuer top generals supported by other small tribes
[30/03/2013 12:08:53 م] Jo…: but he possibly loses EVERYTHING if Dinka SPLM/A tear each other apart
[30/03/2013 12:09:03 م] James Diar: yes
[30/03/2013 12:09:07 م] James Diar: everything
[30/03/2013 12:09:17 م] James Diar: i am now campaigning for Riek
[30/03/2013 12:09:24 م] James Diar: not officially of course
[30/03/2013 12:09:38 م] James Diar: but in tea places, in beer places, in buses
[30/03/2013 12:09:41 م] Jo…: I see – I don’t have a preference, but tell me why Riek is a good choice
[30/03/2013 12:10:00 م] James Diar: because it will save the situation, no fight no more wars
[30/03/2013 12:10:09 م] James Diar: it is not because he is good
[30/03/2013 12:10:15 م] James Diar: but because i do not want war again
[30/03/2013 12:10:27 م] James Diar: among the Dinka and Nuer
[30/03/2013 12:10:39 م] James Diar: it is a time bomb
[30/03/2013 12:10:58 م] James Diar: it is also another dimension,
[30/03/2013 12:11:01 م] Jo…: I know that with the integration of SSDF, the biggest single ethnic group in SPLA now is Nuer
[30/03/2013 12:11:14 م] James Diar: not true
[30/03/2013 12:11:32 م] Jo…: leaders are still Dinka but largest proportion is Nuer no?
[30/03/2013 12:11:37 م] James Diar: maybe yes number of officers but not number of foot soldiers
[30/03/2013 12:11:51 م] James Diar: Numbers of officers Nuer are many
[30/03/2013 12:12:03 م] James Diar: so let talk of 50%
[30/03/2013 12:12:15 م] Jo…: well then perhaps it depends on the other groups
[30/03/2013 12:12:19 م] James Diar: but the confusion is not who is big in the army
[30/03/2013 12:12:21 م] Jo…: because nobody has a majority
[30/03/2013 12:12:38 م] James Diar: it is who can mobilize his tribes if war broke out
[30/03/2013 12:12:42 م] Jo…: but they will use the threat of force from the army for power, no?
[30/03/2013 12:12:52 م] Jo…: I see.
[30/03/2013 12:12:53 م] James Diar: both can easily mobilize their tribes
[30/03/2013 12:13:02 م] James Diar: no
[30/03/2013 12:13:11 م] James Diar: there is no army
[30/03/2013 12:13:24 م] James Diar: there are militias loyal to each commander
[30/03/2013 12:13:33 م] Jo…: yes, sure, agreed
[30/03/2013 12:13:51 م] James Diar: so Riek can gain in Unity, some parts of Jongeli, some parts of Upper Nile
[30/03/2013 12:14:14 م] James Diar: it is the old grudges of the Dinka vs. Nuer
[30/03/2013 12:14:22 م] James Diar: so i go for Riek for peace
[30/03/2013 12:14:31 م] James Diar: not because he is a good leader
[30/03/2013 12:14:43 م] James Diar: he is bad and worse than Kiir
[30/03/2013 12:14:45 م] Jo…: wait, because Dinka will not mobilize as much if Nuer is president?
[30/03/2013 12:15:07 م] James Diar: no problem
[30/03/2013 12:15:19 م] James Diar: it is a chance of each person
[30/03/2013 12:15:26 م] James Diar: it is the splm to decide
[30/03/2013 12:15:55 م] James Diar: if the splm failed to decide they are making doom fire for the people of south sudan
[30/03/2013 12:16:14 م] James Diar: Equatorian want the fight between these two tribes
[30/03/2013 12:16:32 م] James Diar: because they will need their numbers to go down
[30/03/2013 12:17:39 م] Jo…: it’s a difficult situation….
[30/03/2013 12:17:54 م] James Diar: very much
[30/03/2013 12:18:33 م] James Diar: so, if splm failed Riek, he will form a new party, and there will be heated contest in the elections or there will be no elections
[30/03/2013 12:18:59 م] Jo…: yes, I assume he will but then both Riek and Salva will have less power overall, no matter who wins
[30/03/2013 12:19:38 م] James Diar: yes, to rescue the situation
[30/03/2013 12:20:32 م] Jo…: so which way will the other groups fall? Towards Riek or towards Salva?
[30/03/2013 12:21:34 م] James Diar: So far, Equatorian has their own hidden agenda, they cannot make it known to other
[30/03/2013 12:21:50 م] Jo…: when you say ‘Equatorians’, who do you mean?
[30/03/2013 12:21:57 م] Jo…: Bari, Mundari?
[30/03/2013 12:22:03 م] James Diar: Bor will support Kiir to revenge on Riek and also to wait and grab power if Kiir failed
[30/03/2013 12:22:19 م] James Diar: Bari, and the three states of greater Equatoria
[30/03/2013 12:22:39 م] Jo…: aha
[30/03/2013 12:22:42 م] Jo…: ok
Note: I was about to share this piece before the crises in South Sudan, we are there, South Sudan in abyss of tribal-ethnic conflict!
“They are crying for the power and influence they have lost”!
There is no problem with Dr Riek to become the next President only that, he must show to public that he has the stake to lead this country. Dr Riek political history is very very noticeable, Riek the student political activist, Dr Riek the zonal commander for Western Upper and led the first expansion of the SPLM/A into Nuba Mountains, Dr Riek the 1991 splitters leader in search for democracy and good leadership within the rebel movement SPLM/A, Dr Riek the chairperson of Southern Sudan Coordination Council in Khartoum, Dr Riek the leader of the SSIM, Dr Riek the VP for both government of Southern Sudan and South Sudan. Vast history and stories in politics of South Sudan before independence and in the independence South Sudan, Dr Riek Machar Teny-Dhurgon is a leader of the people largely the Nuer nation. He is very right to contest to become the President in the next general elections “doubted” for 2015, but the political circumstances that has unfolded during the last eight years, his chances are very gloomy, he is not widely accepted as the next leader of South Sudan nation. Dr Riek did not failed to do good things in his different capacities but his political history and stories have failed him. “Dr Riek is a traitor to the struggle case of South Sudanese people” you would hear Torit faction yells at you when you urge Dr Riek could be the next President. Regardless of what were his thoughts in 1991, that very history-story has held him persona non grata politically.
The literature written about Dr Riek misbehave in 1991 is huge “if all the things that were done by Jesus were written down, even the whole world could not hold this book” John 21:21, yes, orphans, widows and political rivals of 1991 and today are investing on the SPLM/A split of 1991 to block any attempt by Machar to be the President. The only way, is that Dr Riek leave the SPLM and form his own political party with his supporters. He has so many supporters, if he breakaway, he will safe South Sudan from falling into abyss of tribal conflicts.
Except for a naive person could believe that it was only Nasir faction which has committed atrocities and crimes against humanity in 1991, and that Torit faction didn’t committed the same atrocities. There are mad communities about Riek 1991 split and they are ready to set themselves a blast if Riek made it to Presidency. This is a result of a hatred mixed of his past deeds and tendency of supporting one’s tribal leaders with their appalling inabilities.
As for the so called Garang boys, “What comes around goes around”, Machar tried to correct things at first, but look at those boys (Aloor, Pagan, Taban, Gier) the list is long to include the boys from Equatoria and Bhar elgazal, they were not helpful, they were busy looting South Sudan in every corner, they were only attentive to hear SPLM Oyee chants from the politically-blind South Sudanese. Remember during the transitional constitution making process when Dr Machar “advocated for terms limit” as well as “limited powers of the president” but quest what, it was those of Taban, Pagan, Nyandeng, Gier, (Riek group now) who bluntly refused these suggestions and instead accused Machar that he was “eyeing” the top position, the Presidency! It is pathetic wickedness to this group to consider themselves better than Kiir, instead of this group advising President Kiir accordingly in the beginning, they were all engaged in hypocrisy, they were sabotaging, sitting pleasuring their statehood entitlements just to let Kiir mess up in an ill-keenness that they will grab the power from him when he is in total mess.
Practically, President Kiir politically has better qualifications to cling to power and in the course of doing that, many unintended messes will happen in fear of losing power. Kiir need absolute powers in the way Garang used to have absolute powers, he is not ready to listen to young people like Pagan because he is a big man, “monydit” or at least big brother. He listens better to Uncle Daniel Awet, Uncle Mark Nyipuoch, Uncle Bonadit, Uncles. And why not new Kiir boys like Garang boys? those of Paul Malong, Riziq Zecharia, Telar, Aleu, Dhieu and the long new list?
These two tribes of Leek in Rubkona and Jikany in Guit were engaged in deadly fights in 2007 leaving 21 people dead in spontaneous fights. The government led by former governor Lt. Taban Deng Gai a Jikany by tribe managed to quench the war temporarily. There were no resolutions put forth for the conflict to end, it was just daily doses of “do not fight, you are one people” or “this is the work of NCP!” or “wait the national government is planning to demarcate counties, communities borders, the problem will be solve soon and everybody will take its rights”. But there must be someone to pay the prices of the incidents to show that government or his Excellency the governor is serious, commissioner of that and this county is degreed out, dismissed!
In 2007, the two communities were asked to live peacefully side by side until the national government demarcates the tribal and clannish boundaries. Despite the promises to demarcate the boundaries, the boundaries were not demarcated and there are no signs of near future demarcations as long as the borders between South Sudan and Sudan are not demarcated.
Disputed areas by the two tribes:
Leek in Rubkona and Jikany in Guit have land problems with all their neighbors in the state. Leek have problem with Pariang to the north, and Guit to the east, they have problem with Koch in the south and Mayom in the west. Jikany of Guit has problems with Pariang in the north, with Rubkona in the west and Koch to south. These two communities have troubles all around, interestingly; they were under one chieftain and one county long time back. This joint history has contributed to complicating their conflict story. The conflict story goes like this: both communities calms ownership of these areas: 1) Yoaunyang Madersa 2) New Bentiu, south of Bentiu town, an extension of the town to accommodate the huge returnees to the state capital, 3) Suq Sabha, 4) Bentiu port.
It is very clear that the two communities are mad for lands, more lands. However; there is no evident that the two communities were influenced by their politicians. Taban Deng Gai was the governor of Unity state when the two tribes fought in 2007, he managed to reprimand the two communities using the big man tone “stop fighting or I will wipe you all out of this land”! The two tribes obeyed the instruction especially when the instructions were mixed with the doses of promises that the borders demarcations between counties will solved the problem soon.
Another factor fueling this conflict is that, Bentiu port and Suq Sabha and Youanyang Madersa are good places for business; there is all kind of taxation in Bentiu port, the same thing for Suq Sabha, (7 market). For Youanyang, there is the Madersa, the school is a good reason to fight for here, New Bentiu is also good business place, the tribe who owns it can decide how to distribute plots to new comers and take the money.
Recent fighting has left 9 dead from the police and the SPLA and 3 from the Leek. No reports about how many have died from Jikany. Because the incident involved the security forces engaged fighting with the civilians, the reported number of victims are not convincing, there is lot of secrecy around the real number of death among the civilians as well as the soldiers. It was said in the town sittings that, there were 200 men armed to teeth who mobilized themselves to revenge on the killing of their fallen brothers on 19 November 2013 by Jikany.
As result of the fighting on 28/2013, Rev. Thomas Maluit, commissioner for Rubkona and Mr. James Liyliy governor security advisor for security affairs were dismissed from their positions.
Is the problem solved and finished? No, not solved and finish.
and so many workshops of the same kind again and again
Anyone working anywhere in healthcare in South Sudan is likely to have extensive experience of workshops. These often duplicate content with other workshops, and more than more senior person has observed that we need to have less workshops and more action. My observations from those many workshops is as follows:
1. There will be at least 3 dignitaries who will open the workshop. They will start by saying ‘all protocols observed’. They will talk about how this workshop is crucial to the continuance of the human race. There is often an opening prayer.
2. The workshop will start late; very late in fact. The dignitaries will make it run later.
3. After an hour one of the cleaners will walk in with a crate of cold water bottles. She’ll walk round the room distributing them. Then she’ll do the same with cans of soda. No matter who is talking it…
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